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Full text of "The Cambridge Natural History"

414

DOGS AND WOLVES

form of the bulla is Aeluroid. The teeth vary somewhat in
number, and the following table will serve to indicate the gradual
reduction observable in the Dumber of molars :----
Otocyon                      I f C  Pm f- M 3.-
Canis generally          I f C  Pm f M
Gyon                          I
Icticyon                     I f C -J- Pm
All the Dogs have a caecum1 of simple cylindrical form. In
C. cancrivoriis, C. jubatus, and Nyctereutes $>rocyonides this organ
is straight or only very faintly curved; in other Dogs it is
coiled into an S-like form, sometimes with an additional twist.
The Dogs have, as a rule, five toes, one being dropped in Lycaon*
The tail is fairly long and distinctly bushy. There is in a
number of species a gland at the root of the tail, the presence of
which can frequently be detected by the wet appearance due to
the oozing secretion. The great majority of existing Canidae
belong to the genus Canis. But certainly three, and more
doubtfully four, other genera can be distinguished.
The genus Icticyon contains but one recent species, the Bush
Dog (Z venaticus, Lund) of British Guiana. The animal has a
somewhat Paradoxure-like, at any rate a distinctly un-dog-iike,
aspect, being longish in the body (some 2 feet long), shortish in
the legs, and big-headed. It is blackish in colour, verging
towards golden, brown on the head and back. Sir "W. Flower, to
whom we owe our chief knowledge of its structure, characterises it
as like a young Fox, and with the playful manners of a puppy.
The animal appears to hunt in packs and by scent, and has a
reputation for ferocity. IMcyon differs from Canis and agrees
with the Indian Ouon in having but forty teeth, the last molar
having disappeared from the upper and lower jaws. The
caecum, unlike that of the majority of Canidae, is only slightly
curved. The brain, oddly enough, shows a Cat-like peculiarity.
It has been pointed out that in their long bodies and short legs
the genera Ouon and Icticyon resemble the primitive dogs.2
A geims Nycter&wtes is -usually separated from Canis for the
inclusion of 2f. procyonides only. The separation is based upon
1 Mower, Proc. Z<x&. Soc. 1879, p. 766.
a JRroc. Zeal* Soc. 1880, p. 70.